In May 2019, the 9th Circuit issued a ruling in Vazquez v. Jan-Pro Franchising International, Inc. No. 17-16096 (9th Cir. 2019). In Vazquez, the 9th Circuit analyzed whether Jan-Pro’s franchisees were in fact employees, as opposed to independent contractors. The 9th Circuit held that the California Supreme Court’s intervening decision in Dynamex Ops. W. Inc. v. Superior Court of Los Angeles, 4 Cal.5th 903 (2018) is controlling and applies retroactively.